Thursday, August 27, 2020

Public Administration

Question: Talk about the Public Administeation ? Answer : Introducation Another type of administration has developed as a substitute to the administrative and ill-disposed strategies for detailing and actualizing approaches. This new type of administration is known as the communitarian administration which unites in a few partners with open offices in like manner discussions so they can take an interest amicably in the dynamic procedure (O'Flynn Wanna, 2013). As it were a communitarian administering course of action might be characterized as an overseeing game plan where a few open offices include non-state partners to effectively take an interest in the conventional dynamic procedure so as to figure open arrangements and execute the open resources or projects. Collective administration has the accompanying fundamental attributes: the discussion is built up by open organizations; the non-state partners are a piece of the gathering; the members effectively take part in the dynamic procedure; the target of the discussion is to detail and execute open appro aches amicably and consensually. This type of overseeing course of action has been created so as to react to the disappointment of the adversarialism and disappointment of responsibility in the managerialism. Community oriented administration appears to guarantee that on the off chance that synergistic administering game plan is embraced, at that point it would encourage in decreasing the high cost that is caused in the antagonistic strategy for strategy making procedure and result in increment popularity based investment and restore sensibility to open administration. Shared administration process incorporates different stages. Numerous researchers depict the agreement building process as an execution or an exchange stage. A few researchers distinguish three phases, which incorporates strategy plan, strategy advancement and the dynamic procedure (Guerrero et al., 2015). One of the basic components of the term communitarian administration is the word administration. A few creators have understood the word administration as rules, legitimate systems, regulatory practice and legal choices that deny and empower arrangements identified with open products and enterprises. It is regularly contended while deciphering administration that it alludes to a type of government, which obscures the limits between and inside the private and the open segments. Notwithstanding, administration additionally incorporates dynamic procedure, which includes the dynamic cooperation of both the private and the open segments. Along these lines, another basic component in com munitarian administration incorporates a type of government wherein both the private and the open areas cooperate in various manners, following specific procedure so as to create rules and laws for the arrangement of open related products. In a collective overseeing process, each person and all the intrigue bunches are qualified for take an interest in the dynamic procedure with respect to the choices that will in general influence them. Albeit the vast majority of the synergistic courses of action carefully include non-state on-screen characters, compelling collective administration explicitly characterizes the pretended by the open offices. The term open organization incorporates the assemblies, courts, administrations and other legislative bodies, be that as it may, in community administration the term open office alludes to the official branch office (Emerson Gerlak, 2014). These open organizations will in general beginning community oriented gatherings either to consent to legal commands or to fulfill their own motivation. A few researchers are of the feeling that cooperative administration shows that the open organizations and the non-state partners share an alternate sort of relationship. For example, a few crea tors express that community oriented courses of action means portrayal by the basic intrigue gatherings, while some are of the feeling that cooperative administration incorporate agents of every single related gathering. The term partners in community oriented administration will incorporate the cooperation of the composed gatherings and the interest of the residents as people. In spite of the fact that the open organizations and the partners assume unmistakable jobs in a community oriented course of action, they might be alluded to as partners for accommodation. Community administration is powerful on the off chance that it includes aggregation. There must be a two-path correspondence between the partners and the open organizations. They should hold gatherings together and connect with themselves in considerations (Bryson, 2013). Cooperative courses of action involves that partners must take part in the dynamic procedure, as they will be liable for the outcomes of the strategies. The choices in the shared type of administration are made agreeably, that is, the members of the gathering must go to an understanding so as to determine the concerned issues. In spite of the fact that the open organizations have the last definitive position to choose, the basic goal of joint effort is to accomplish understanding among all the partners. Community oriented administration focuses on open related strategies and issues (Head Alford, 2015). Synergistic administration is not quite the same as different gatherings like elective contest goals discussions or intercession gatherings. The open organizations may depend on the elective contest goals and intervention gatherings so as to determine the open related issues yet these discussions are intended to determine debates emerging between private people. A fundamental component of communitarian type of administration is that so as to diminish the vagary between people in general and the private parts, the term shared administra tion is characterized as a legislature that manages open issues. Community administration becomes compelling if all the partners take an interest in the dynamic procedure, in any case, clearly the authority of including or barring certain partners will emerge in the collective gathering however there are sure partners the avoidance of which will scare the authenticity of eth dynamic procedure or even outcome in the disappointment of the joint effort process through and through. The last consultations of the synergistic gathering might be addressed in the event that the significant members of the discussion are of the view that they were not spoken to effectively (Huxham Vangen, 2013). The gatherings who get the chance to take an interest in the dynamic procedure of the communitarian discussion are the ones who will in general be focused on the procedure. The achievement of the dynamic procedure of a community oriented type of administration depends on three fundamental variables: regardless of whether individuals influenced by the choices taken by the gathering regard the members or their ability and the authority of the members to settle on such choices. The aggregate power and skill and the definitive authority of the members or the partners are major for the dynamic procedures and the joint effort result of the community oriented course of action (Fung, 2015). In the event that the members do not have any of these elements they are viewed as unfit and have no position to settle on choices identified with the key issues. In the event that the members exhibit their aptitude and ability to determine the issues, the choices made by them are viewed as suitable. The gatherings in the cooperative administration procedure may understand that there is a need to draw in individuals on a more extensive scale in the dynamic procedure. For instance, the members in the communitarian administration may get cognizant about the way that the procedure must incorporate even those people who are influenced by the results of the arrangements alongside those individuals who have interests in such result. While the correct incorporation of partners is fundamental for a compelling collective administration, a few researchers have grasped that the partaking bunches will have unmistakable motivations so as to take an interest in the community oriented administration process depending on their particular force in the discussion (Bryson, Crosby Bloomberg, 2014). There are factors that block the compelling working of the shared administration process (Margerum, 2016). Initially, the gatherings taking part in the dynamic procedure who accepts to be incredible for the most part doesn't confine themselves to one explicit cooperative way, rather they like to have more choices accessible to them. As it is called attention to by researchers of communitarian administration that when there are numerous alternatives accessible for goals, it is imagined that a goals utilizing the synergistic procedure is certainly not an ideal choice. Also, the issue with respect to the force lopsidedness may occur when choices about including agents partners from the composed divisions of the general public is made as a few interests gatherings might not have a basic system to speak to them in the community oriented administration process (Doberstein, 2016). In this way, the more the partners are influenced, the more troublesome it becomes to speak to the partners in the shared administrations forms. Thirdly, there is a presence of contrasts of intrigue and strife. Such clash may bring about a between bunch opposition and it turns out to be hard to conquer such between bunch hostility through community oriented administration forms. The partners become so engaged with deciphering their own characters and planning answers for resolve the issues they face. This keeps them from focusing on the coordinated effort administration process (Choi Robertson, 2013). Fourthly, the conditions present in the start of the joint effort process, it might either empower or dishearten collaboration among the partners or between the partners and the open offices. Fifthly, if the partners are inadequate or don't have any assets, status or can't take part similarly with different partners, at that point the community oriented administration process will be effectively controlled by

Saturday, August 22, 2020

About Simian Virus 40 (SV40) Essay -- Immunology, Diseases

Simian infection 40 (SV40) is a monkey infection that was brought into the human populace by debased poliovaccines. The antibodies were delivered in SV40 tainted monkey cells somewhere in the range of 1955 and 1963. The site of inert contamination in people isn't known yet the nearness of SV40 in pee proposes the kidney as a potential site of inertness. SV40 is a little DNA infection that is concentrated broadly in light of the fact that it can change and deify various cell types (Ozer 2000, Saenz-Robles et al. 2001). Polyoma infections taint well evolved creatures causing tumors and malignant growth. Likewise to polyoma infections, SV40 contains a DNA that is related with histones in a round complex containing 20-22 nucleosomes (Varshavsky et al., 1977). SV40 DNA is situated in a 50 nm capsid which is made out of homopentameters of the significant capsid protein, VP1 (43 kilo Daltons) related with one of the minor auxiliary proteins VP2 or VP3. Under physiological salt and pH conditions, VP1 alone remains disassociated, and at pH 5, it collects into rounded structures. Between pH 4 and pH 7, VP2 permits the VP1 pentameters to amass in round particles and consolidates VP1. Besides, the infection has an icosahedral balance and contains 72 pentameters (Liddington et al., 1991). Figure 1shows the proposed structure of SV40 DNA and the length of every locale inside the infection. The graph features the game plan of the early and late locales. Moreover, it shows the clockwise and counter clockwise even ness of the huge T antigen (TAg), little T antigen (tag), and the significant capsid proteins inside the infection. Figure 1: chart of the SV40 infection genome. In 1989, Fogleman et al. broke down the uncoating and entrance of Simian infection (SV 40). It utilizes the ganglioside... ... Takahashi, Y., et al. â€Å"Analysis of Promoter authoritative by the E2F and pRB Families In Vivo: Distinct E2F Proteins Mediate Activation and Repression.† Genes 14 (2000): 804-816. Tã ¼rler, Hans, and Consuelo Salomon. Simian Virus 40 as a Vector: Recombinant Viruses Expressing Individual Polyoma T Antigens. Virus explore 54.2 (1998): 133-45. . Varshavsky, A.J., et al. â€Å"Compact type of SV40 Viral Minichromosome is Resistant to Nuclease: Possible Implications for Chromatin Structure.† Nucleic acids explore 4 (1977): 3303-3325. Vilchez, R.A. â€Å"Association between Simian Virus 40 and non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.† Lancet 359 (2002): 817-823. Wang, Chih-Hung, et al. Simian Virus 40 T Antigen Induces p53-Independent Apoptosis yet doesn't Suppress erbB2/neu Gene Expression in Immortalized Human Epithelial Cells. Cancer letters 137.1 (1999): 107-15.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Essay For Fourth Grade - How to Choose an Easy Reading Sample

Essay For Fourth Grade - How to Choose an Easy Reading SampleYou should certainly not be at a loss for good fourth grade essay samples, and you should not be stuck with the sort of writing you would like to avoid. If you need to find the sort of essay writing sample that will satisfy your needs, the following are tips to help you do just that.In the past, before computers and word processing programs became so popular, one way to find excellent writing samples for essays was to use the old fashioned approach of hand searching through old notebooks and diaries. However, these days, when you try this method of finding your ideal sample, you will find that it is just as hard or more difficult than looking for the perfect essay writing sample. In fact, this can be even more time consuming and frustrating than the traditional approach to obtaining essay samples.Instead of being frustrated, you should try doing this search from home if you have access to a computer, but you should still sp end some time getting familiar with the computer and using it to find the sorts of writing samples that will best meet your needs. The second you are able to find the type of writing samples you are looking for, you should carefully look over the choices in order to see which one will meet your needs the best.When you are looking for essay samples for fourth graders, you will probably want to choose from something that has been prepared for use by students at a university or college. This is because of the very personal nature of these essays. Therefore, when you are looking for essay samples for fourth graders, you will want to be sure that you are choosing the ones that are going to be the most suitable for your needs.Essays for fourth graders will generally require a mixture of different skills. As such, you should choose the essays that can be used most effectively by your students, as well as being the type of writing samples that will not be difficult for your students to use. The same is true of essays for fourth grade. Because of the general nature of this age group, you will want to ensure that the essay is going to be written in a manner that is easily understood by the students.Essays for fourth graders may be very personal, so you should take steps to make sure that your essays will provide your students with the ability to clearly express their opinions. Many fourth graders are less adept in verbal communication skills than older fourth graders, and this is why you will want to consider taking a step in this direction in order to make sure that your students will be able to easily express their views in essay form.At the same time, you should make sure that the writing is clear, concise, and will enable your student's capabilities to be clearly seen. In order to produce the kind of essays for fourth graders that you will be able to clearly read, you will need to invest in high quality materials that include clear and unambiguous writing.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Transfer Pricing - An Introduction - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2279 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Economics Essay Type Research paper Level High school Did you like this example? CHAPTER 1 TRANSFER PRICING- AN INTRODUCTION Introduction Transfer pricing is very important in economic sense as it impacts foreign investment. These transactions are also not subject to the same set of circumstances worldwide and each transaction may be affected by different variables. This is essential due to the rise and the growth of the Multi National Enterprises (MNE). These are enterprises that have the flexibility and the ability to place their enterprises anywhere in the globe. This is of importance as the role of MNE which have businesses all over the globe is increasing. The advancement in technology has contributed to the removal of barriers for trade and commerce. Significant amount of global trade has now being carried out with regard to the transfer of the goods and services as the entities cannot operate on a standalone basis. A large amount of trade and commerce is carried on between these MNEà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s and such transaction between the enterprises of an MNE is known as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"intra group transactio nsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. More than 60 (sixty) per cent of global trade is carried out between associated enterprises of MNE.[1] This however brings up new challenges and issues in the commercial sense as well as for the purpose of taxation. The issue of transfer pricing is one such issue as these corporations would like to change the shareholding patterns. To minimise the tax burdens the MNEà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s, the transactions between the parties is not governed by the market considerations but a single enterprise. There objective is to arrange the cash flow in such a method between them to minimise tax liability and this would be done by shifting the tax liability to a tax friendly jurisdiction where they would not be taxed as much as they would have been in the country from which they are making the transfer. To combat this provision the concept of transfer pricing was introduces to ensure that the profits that ought to have been earned in India are not shifted to other jurisd iction either by reducing the income or inflating the expenditure in transaction between various entities belonging to a multinational group.[2] The transfer prices aim to determine the income of the parties that are involved in the cross border transaction. Tax bases of the countries involved in the transaction are generally affected. This affects the countries as, if one country tries to make an adjustment it would indirectly affect the tax base of the other country. Therefore there are three main issues in transfer pricing and these are regarding jurisdiction, valuation and allocation of the income that is earned. This is very important as there may be common resources that are generally shared between the entities. The reason for the transfer pricing regulation is that most of the MNE try to avoid the payment of the taxes to increase their revenue. One of the other important reasons is that the developing counties in order to be more technologically advanced have liberalis ed transactions leading to the transfer of knowledge and technical know- how. These regulations are made use of by the MNE and try to circumvent the liability. The presence of certain political and economical uncertainties may also be the reason why the MNEà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s try to shift the capital or profit. One of the recourse that is available to the parties is to show that the particular transaction would not lead to an income to the corporation. Therefore the object is to determine the likely profits that would have been earned in India if the transaction was on the basis of the arms length price between the independent entities. However, the authorities in many instance have taken a very aggressive stance against the investment and such agreement that have been entered into by the parties which acts as a deterrent to the MNE who would like to establish their businesses in India. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Transfer Pricing An Introduction" essay for you Create order TRANSFER PRICING One party transfers to another goods or services, for a price. That price is known asà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“transfer priceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and this may be arbitrary or dictated.[3]The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (hereinafter à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“OECDà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ) defines transfer pricing as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"a price, adopted for book- keeping purposes, which is used to value transactions between affiliated enterprises integrated under the same management at artificially high or low levels in order to effect an unspecified income payment or capital transfer between those enterprisesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[4] Transfer pricing is the mechanism adopted by MNE for valuing the goods and services traded with their subsidiaries or associate companies abroad so as to lower taxes and to maximize profits.[5] à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Transfer Pricingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ generally refers to prices of transactions between associated enterprises which may take place under conditions differing fr om those taking place between independent enterprises. [6] The Blackà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s law dictionary defines it to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the charge assigned to an exchange of goods or services between the corporationsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s organised unitsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[7] The expression transfer pricing has of late acquired pejorative meaning as it evokes the idea of systematic manipulation of the prices to reduce the prices artificially to cause loss, avoid tax and duties in a specific country. [8] OECD Guidelines The Transfer Pricing laws of countries are generally based on the OECD Guidelines on the subject and the current provisions in India have been moulded to a large extent by the OECD guidelines. The OECD was officially born on 30 September 1961 and has now 34(thirty four) member countries.[9] The OECD companies analyse the problems which the countries are facing and try to bring about a workable solution to deal with the problem by making policies among other things to address the issues. They have identified that this issue is important to both the tax authority as well as the tax payer and have tried through their various policies to maintain the balance of odds in both the parties favour. They have tried to bring and implement workable solutions so that both the parties are not disadvantaged. OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations[10]is the most important guideline on the matter regarding transfer pricing. This particular guide lines provides for the application of the arms length principle for purposes of cross-border transactions between associated enterprises. Associated enterprise as per these guidelines is an enterprise which satisfies the conditions which have been set forth in Article 9 Sub Paragraphs 1a, 1b of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital (hereinafter as the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“OECD Model Tax Conventionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ )[11] The principle report which dealt with the issue of transfer pricing is the transfer pricing and the Multinational Enterprises 1979 which was repealed by the OECD Council in the year 1995. The other reports which addressed this issue is the Transfer pricing and the Multinational Enterprises- the taxation issues in 1984[12]. Transfer pricing in India- a brief history The Union Budget of India for the financial year 2001à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"2002 introduced comprehensive transfer pricing regulations to the Indian legal and tax laws. The Finance Act 2001 has replaced the earlier Section 92 of the Indian Income-tax Act, 1961 (hereinafter known as the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Actà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ) which was based on a restricted and a diminutive form of transfer pricing which was based on Section. 42(2) of the Income Tax Act, 1922. The provision stated above however does not define the term transfer pricing clearly and efficiently but merely dealt with the situation regarding transfer pricing. There were certain conditions which had to exist to invoke the transfer pricing regulation and they are as follows.[13] The business should be transacted between a resident and a non resident There should be a close connection between the two On the account, the course of the business so arranged that the business produces either no profit or less than normal profit to the resident. Therefore it is safe to conclude that this earlier provision was insufficient to deal with the issue of transfer pricing. In 2001 the compliance with the transfer pricing regulation has become mandatory.[14]The Circular No 14 December 12, 2001, gives the reasons for changing the provisions of Section 92 with SS. 92- 92 F via the Finance Act, 2001. It states that the earlier provisions regarding the transfer pricing were very vague and no proper guidelines were prescribed as to the maintenance of records by the assessee. It also stated that the increase of the multinational corporations has increased in economical activities and there can be manipulations in the prices charged and paid in the intra-group transactions which eventually lead to the erosion of tax revenues. There was another replacement of the Section 92 through the Circular No 8, August 27, 2002. Through this particular circular various other sections were also amended. Considering all these changes the tax autho rities have gotten bolder and more experienced through the passage of the time. They have constantly updating the transfer pricing provisions to meet the global standards. The recent controversial adjustment is with regard to the share valuation and share subscription. The decisions given in Vodafone and Shell have been the reason as to why this has come to light and the corresponding retrospective amendment have been made by the government in this regard. Research question The issues which is sought to be addressed at this stage is Whether Capital receipts by way of subscription of shares is covered under the transfer pricing regulation and under the jurisdiction of the Income Tax Act, under Chapter X? Whether a single transaction of issue of shares can be treated as two transactions à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" viz. as that of issue of shares and of grant of a financial accommodation? Whether the income tax authorities can challenge the valuation of shares undertaken by the Indian subsidiary during the share subscription at the time of issue of shares? Methodology The methodology used in this research is based on the doctrinal method. This issue in transfer pricing is a relatively new issue. The research will be based on the recent judicial trends, scholarly articles, reports and articles published by recognised organisations who deal with the issue of transfer pricing on a regular basis and are renowned for the services that they provide regarding the same. I would also look into the statistical data that is published by the survey conducting institutions. This will include both original and derivative work or jurist, economist and tax practitioners. Objective The area of transfer pricing as both a legal as well as an economic implication as it related to the transaction between two associated enterprises in an MNE. We have already established that the no of MNE participating in the market has increased in India since the opening of the market for the benefit of trade and commerce. As the transaction between the associated entities is inevitable, it becomes important as they would go to new avenues which are friendlier to the taxpayer and have a reasonable method of imposing the tax. On the other hand, since it is a taxing issue, we have the revenues interest at the other end. The revenue would not like to give a slightest margin to the tax payer if they feel that they have an authority to tax a particular transaction especially if they feel that the amount to tax is in huge. In light of the conflicting interest the study aims to look at the interpretation and the implication of the laws and regulations with this regard in light of the recent developments. Impact and Significance Transfer pricing is a subject of relatively recent origin in the Indian tax regime. This law is evolving. It reflects the dynamism and which the global trade and commerce is taking place. This area of law due to its wide reaching implication has gained the attention of all the countries and they all are trying to arrive at a legislation which would effectively look into the interest of both the parties concerned. The law regarding transfer pricing has to move in tandem with the global developments in trade and commerce. As we are now aware of the importance of transfer pricing, this particular issue regarding the shares plays a significant role as it indirectly is dealing with the foreign direct investment into India. Through this study a clearer picture of the position of law, the impact of the position of law would be analysed in a way so that it would at a level look into the principle of law enshrined in these provision which may be beneficial for both the parties when there is a dispute. An attempt to resolve the dispute with this regard will be made which would complement the current regime. Chapterisation Introduction [1] Ministry of Finance Department of Revenue, Central Board of Direct Taxes, White paper on black money, May 2012. See also, Christian, Death and Taxes: The Truth of Tax Dodging, March 2009. [2] See generally KAnga, Palkhiwala, Vyas, The Law and Practice of Income Tax 1736 (LexisNexis Butterworth 9ed.) [3]Income Tax department, Transfer Pricing, available at (Last accessed Feb 12, 2013) [4]OECD, Glossary of statistical terms. [5]Department of Valuation, Transfer pricing, available at (Last accessed Jan 31, 2013). [6] Supra note 1 [7] Garner, Black Laws Dictionary 1536,( 7th edn., 1999). [8] D.P. Mittal, Law of Transfer pricing In India 9.(Taxmann, 3rd ed. 2009) [9] See, History of OECD available at (Last accessed Jan 31, 2013). [10]The OECD Tr ansfer pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations, 2010. [11] As provided in the guidelines. [12] The OECD Transfer pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations, 2010. [13] Section 42(2) of the Income Tax Act, 1922 has prescribed certain conditions to invoke the transfer pricing provision. [14] The Finance Act, 2001, made the compliance with the transfer pricing regulation mandatory. The memorandum with the bill gave an explanation as to the growth of the MNE and the need for a tax legislation to prevent the tax erosion. See Circular NO. 14 dated 20 November 2001.

Friday, May 15, 2020

World War II - Battle of Savo Island

Battle of Savo Island - Conflict Dates: The Battle of Savo Island was fought August 8-9, 1942, during World War II (1939-1945). Fleets Commanders Allies Rear Admiral Richmond K. TurnerRear Admiral Victor Crutchley6 heavy cruisers, 2 light cruisers, 15 destroyers Japanese Vice Admiral Gunichi Mikawa5 heavy cruisers, 2 light cruisers, 1 destroyer Battle of Savo Island - Background: Moving to the offensive after the victory at Midway in June 1942, Allied forces targeted Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. Situated at the eastern end of the island chain, Guadalcanal had been occupied by a small Japanese force which was constructing an airfield. From the island, the Japanese would be able to threaten Allied supply lines to Australia. As a result, Allied forces under the direction of Vice Admiral Frank J. Fletcher arrived in the area and troops began landing on Guadalcanal, Tulagi, Gavutu, and Tanambogo on August 7. While Fletchers carrier task force covered the landings, the amphibious force was directed by Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner. Included in his command was a screening force of eight cruisers, fifteen destroyers, and five minesweepers led by British Rear Admiral Victor Crutchley. Though the landings caught the Japanese by surprise, they countered with several air raids on August 7 and 8. These were largely defeated by Fletchers carrier aircraft, though they did set afire the transport George F. Elliott. Having sustained losses in these engagements and concerned about fuel levels, Fletcher informed Turner that he would be leaving the area late on August 8 to resupply. Unable to remain in the area without cover, Turner decided to continue unloading supplies at Guadalcanal through the night before withdrawing on August 9. On the evening of August 8, Turner called a meeting with Crutchley and Marine Major General Alexander A. Vandegrift to discuss the withdrawal. In leaving for the meeting, Crutchley departed the screening force aboard the heavy cruiser HMAS Australia without informing his command of his absence. The Japanese Response: Responsibility for responding to the invasion fell to Vice Admiral Gunichi Mikawa who led the newly-formed Eighth Fleet based at Rabaul. Flying his flag from the heavy cruiser Chokai, he departed with the light cruisers Tenryu and Yubari, as well as a destroyer with the goal of attacking the Allied transports on the night of August 8/9. Proceeding southeast, he was soon joined by Rear Admiral Aritomo Gotos Cruiser Division 6 which consisted of the heavy cruisers Aoba, Furutaka, Kako, and Kinugasa. It was Mikawas plan to move along the east coast of Bougainville before advancing down The Slot to Guadalcanal (Map). Moving through the St. George Channel, Mikawas ships were spotted by the submarine USS S-38. Later in the morning, they were located by Australian scout aircraft which radioed sighting reports. These failed to reach the Allied fleet until evening and even then were inaccurate as they reported the enemy formation included seaplane tenders. As he moved southeast, Mikawa launched floatplanes which provided him with a fairly accurate picture of the Allied dispositions. With this information, he informed his captains that they would approach south of Savo Island, attack, and then withdraw to the north of the island. Allied Dispositions: Before departing for the meeting with Turner, Crutchley deployed his force to cover the channels north and south of Savo Island. The southern approach was guarded by the heavy cruisers USS Chicago and HMAS Canberra along with the destroyers USS Bagley and USS Patterson. The northern channel was protected by the heavy cruisers USS Vincennes, USS Quincy, and USS Astoria along with the destroyers USS Helm and USS Wilson steaming in a square patrol pattern. As an early warning force, the radar-equipped destroyers USS Ralph Talbot and USS Blue were positioned to the west of Savo (Map). The Japanese Strike: After two days of constant action, the tired crews of the Allied ships were at Condition II which meant that half were on duty while half rested. In addition, several of the cruiser captains were also asleep. Approaching Guadalcanal after dark, Mikawa again launched floatplanes to scout the enemy and to drop flares during the upcoming fight. Closing in a single file line, his ships successfully passed between Blue and Ralph Talbot whose radars were hampered by the nearby land masses. Around 1:35 AM on August 9, Mikawa spotted the ships of the southern force silhouetted by the fires from the burning George F. Elliot. Though spotting the northern force, Mikawa commenced attacking the southern force with torpedoes around 1:38. Five minutes later, Patterson was the first Allied ship to spot the enemy and immediately went into action. As it did so, both Chicago and Canberra were illuminated by aerial flares. The latter ship attempted to attack, but quickly came under heavy fire and was put out of action, listing and on fire. At 1:47, as Captain Howard Bode was attempting to get Chicago into the fight, the ship was hit in the bow by a torpedo. Rather than assert control, Bode steamed west for forty minutes and left the fight (Map). Defeat of the Northern Force: Moving through the southern passage, Mikawa turned north to engage the other Allied ships. In doing so, Tenryu, Yubari, and Furutaka took a more westerly course than the rest of the fleet. As a result, the Allied northern force was soon bracketed by the enemy. Though firing had been observed to the south, the northern ships were unsure of the situation and were slow to go to general quarters. At 1:44, the Japanese began launching torpedoes at the American cruisers and six minutes later illuminated them with searchlights. Astoria came into action, but was hit hard by fire from Chokai which disabled its engines. Drifting to a halt, the cruiser was soon on fire, but managed to inflict moderate damage on Chokai. Quincy was slower to enter the fray and was soon caught in a crossfire between the two Japanese columns. Though one of its salvos hit Chokai, nearly killing Mikawa, the cruiser was soon on fire from Japanese shells and three torpedo hits. Burning, Quincy sank at 2:38. Vincennes was hesitant to enter the fight for fear of friendly fire. When it did, it quickly took two torpedo hits and became the focus of Japanese fire. Taking over 70 hits and a third torpedo, Vincennes sank at 2:50. At 2:16, Mikawa met with his staff about pressing the battle to attack the Guadalcanal anchorage. As their ships were scattered and low on ammunition, it was decided to withdraw back to Rabaul. In addition, he believed that the American carriers were still in the area. As he lacked air cover, it was necessary for him to clear the area before daylight. Departing, his ships inflicted damage on Ralph Talbot as they moved northwest. Aftermath of Savo Island: The first of a series of naval battles around Guadalcanal, the defeat at Savo Island saw the Allies lose four heavy cruisers and suffer 1,077 killed. In addition, Chicago and three destroyers were damaged. Japanese losses were a light 58 killed with three heavy cruisers damaged. Despite the severity of the defeat, the Allied ships did succeed in preventing Mikawa from striking the transports in the anchorage. Had Mikawa pressed his advantage, it would have severely hampered Allied efforts to resupply and reinforce the island later in the campaign. The US Navy later commissioned the Hepburn Investigation to look into the defeat. Of those involved, only Bode was severely criticized. Selected Sources World War II Pacific: Battle of Savo IslandOpening Salvos: The Battle of Savo Island

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Big Five Personality - 4743 Words

PERSONALITY The different ways a person reacts to in different situations and interacts with others. Most of the times we measure personality in traits a person displays. Measuring personalities has been done in the past by various people. The Big Five are broad dimensions or categories in a hierarchical sense, such that they encompass a lot without detail. We lose information, and while the Big Five factors provide useful personality descriptors they are somewhat less useful at predicting specific behaviors. So a researcher chooses a hierarchical level of analysis suited to the research being conducted. Some researchers such as Norman, Goldberg and Costa and McCrae, have developed middle level categories that provide more description or†¦show more content†¦The trait shows a preference for planned rather than spontaneous behavior. It influences the way in which we control, regulate, and direct our impulses. Conscientiousness includes the factor known as Need for Achievement. HIGHER DEGREE The five factor model of personality considers you an organized, focused and timely achiever of your goals. You plan things and follow that route strictly. You are not easy to be distracted. However, you tend to be workaholic. You are self-disciplined. You are considered confident, dutiful and reliable. You often prove a strong executive in any organization. LOWER DEGREE The five factor model of personality considers you careless, relaxed and unorganized. You don’t plan things and pursue your goals with a flexible approach. Some day you work a lot and other day you go on vacations. You are spontaneous. However, you are not considered good for projects where deadlines are to be followed. EXTRAVERSION Extraversion is characterized by positive emotions and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others. The trait is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. Extraverts enjoy being with people, and are often perceived as full of energy. They tend to be enthusiastic, action-oriented individuals who are likely to say Yes! or Lets go! to opportunities for excitement. In groups they like to talk, assert themselves, and draw attention toShow MoreRelatedBIG FIVE PERSONALITY895 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿ Big Five Personality Inventory The Big Five Test is a compilation of 70 questioned geared towards â€Å"measuring how accurate or inaccurate the statements pertain to you.†(Wentz) This test is considered to be an objective test measuring certain traits of the individual taking it rather than states. Traits differ from states in the sense that traits are life-long characteristics; meanwhile states are temporary characteristics of an individual. This testRead MoreThe Personality Assessment Of The Big Five Personality Essay1651 Words   |  7 PagesPersonality Assessment Introduction I found the test results of the Big Five personality assessment to be an interesting and very accurate description of myself. 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Some ideas concentrate on clarifying how personality cultivates, while others are concerned with specific variances in personality. There are four main components of personality: consistency, psychological/physiological, behaviors/actions, and multiple expressionsRead MoreThe Big Five Personality Traits1020 Words   |  5 PagesThe Big Five Personality Traits Kelly Wilson Benedictine University Organizational Behavior MGT 320-D2A5 Teresa Pavone November 06, 2015 The Big Five Personality Traits Personality traits reflect people’s characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Motivation is a factor that is highly dependent upon personality and because of this, managers must be able to recognize and respond to the different traits. Personality has been studied extensively throughout the years andRead MoreThe Big Five Personality Constructs1654 Words   |  7 PagesPersonality theories, or models, are metaphors for describing something which is intrinsically indescribable, the human personality. Currently, one of the most popular approaches among psychologists for studying personality theory is the Five-Factor Model (FFM) or Big Five dimensions of personality. This essay will explore the Big Five personality constructs and seek to explain how useful they are to understanding how people are likely to perform in a work situation. In conclusion, this essayRead MoreThe Big Five Dimensions Of Personality1456 Words   |  6 PagesThe Big Five Dimensions of Personality Today, many researchers consider that they are five core personality traits. Evidence of this theory has been growing over the past 50 years, beginning with the research of D. W. Fiske (1949) and later expanded upon by other researchers including Norman (1967), Smith (1967), Goldberg (1981), and McCrae Costa (1987). The big five are broad categories of personality traits. While there is a major body of literature supporting this five-factor model of personalityRead MoreThe Big Five Dimensions Of Personality1035 Words   |  5 PagesThe Big Five Dimensions of Personality 11695795 Oklahoma State University The Big Five Dimensions of Personality The Big Five Dimensions of Personality are five dimensions of personality that depict personality traits in humans. The dimensions are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. The Big Five Dimensions of Personality are used in favor of other models because of the eradication of overlapping traits. This particular model shows regularity inRead MoreBig Five Personality Traits808 Words   |  4 PagesBig five model †¢ Lewis goldberg proposed a five dimension personality model , nicknamed the big five /five factor theory. †¢ The Big Five model is a comprehensive, empirical, data-driven research finding. †¢ In psychology, the Big Five factors (Five Factor Model) of personality are five broad domains or dimensions of personality which are used to describe human personality. Big five factors are †¢ Factor I: Extraversion. †¢ Factor II: Agreeableness. †¢ Factor III:

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Gatsby and the Complexity of the American Dream free essay sample

The Great Gatsby is an exploration of the American dream in modern society, in which money and prosperity are significant factors and it may not be as simple as you think; and the movie Citizen Kane is another example of the complex issues relating to the American dream. First, we will explore the American dream, in which it is to make a great deal of money because it provides for a comfortable living, and characters in the novel reflect upon this very ideal. Second, achieving the American dream of wealth is perceived to bring happiness, but that is not always the case as will examine the dream relating to the characters in the novel. Third, we will explore the American dream of Jay Gatsby in comparison to Charles Foster Kane in the movie Citizen Kane, and how they approached life differently, but both ended up with similar outcomes. FIRST, the American dream is the desire to acquire an enormous amount of fortune through the opportunities in the United States; however, to some people, the American dreams are the finer things in life other than money, such as freedom, family, health, love, and happiness. According to the novel, wealth is the central theme of the story. Most of the characters seem to revolve themselves around money one way or another. Money is important to sustain a normal lifestyle, the opportunity of working hard to earn a living, and having a representative democracy is what I believe to be the American dream. The American dream is the opportunity to make a large sum of money, in which it would provide financial security. It would change your social status; all of a suddenly, you belong with a different crowd of people in the upper echelons, an entirely different playing field. It is also the ability to attain material goods through the measure of wealth and success. The United States is a place where opportunities are available to all individuals, regardless of your social status or racial background; the land of the free, where there’s a will, there’s a way. Here are several examples of people with different social status and racial backgrounds who are living the American dream: Oprah Winfrey, Bill Gates, Colin Powell, Jackie Chan, and Jennifer Lopez. It is rare to find people with different racial backgrounds in other countries to have the amount of wealth as the people in the United States. The vast array of resources makes this place known as the land of opportunity. The American dream, however, is not necessarily all about wealth to some people. Wealth may not necessarily bring happiness to everybody. There are many more important things to life than revolving yourself around money all the time. Some people feel that living in a democratic society with the freedom of political representation is the American dream, because there are many countries in this world that still holds a repressed society. It could also be about earning a decent living, not necessarily a lot of money, but enough, and the well being of family members. In other words, the American dream could be having a stable income enough to be satisfactory, while maintaining a loving and healthy family. There is an old saying that money cannot buy happiness. The American dream, according to the novel, portrays that money is above all things, and Fitzgerald stresses the importance of money throughout the story because money seems to be the root of all causes. It also explores the different levels of the social class, from royalty to peasants. It seems as though money builds confidence, according to the novel, in which you are perceived to be a ‘nobody’ in society without wealth and status. It seems to be about what you own and who you know. To have money is to have power and access to happiness. For example, Gatsby insisted on showing Daisy his house when they first reunited. He said to her, â€Å"My house looks well, doesn’t it? See how the whole front of it catches the light. † (pg. 95, 8-9) Gatsby is blatantly and intentionally showing off his wealth to Daisy, and she fell for it. If Gatsby did not have the wealth, Daisy would have never given him the time of the day that she has. By having money, it changes your entire life, social status, and the ability to have almost anything you want. Gatsby throws weekly parties at his house with spectacular decorations, entertainments, and world class cuisines. People don’t even know who Gatsby is, but they attend his parties because of the apparent wealth this man has to show. Everybody wants to be apart of the popular and wealthy crowd. He wanted to be accepted into the high society and these parties are a way to build his status. As shallow as it sounds, the novel seems to talk about people judging a book by its cover. In other words, the American dream to the characters in the novel is how wealthy and how much money one has. The characters in the novel reflect the very ideal of what most people perceives as the American dream, and that is the amount of money that one has. Jay Gatsby is a man who grew up with no money, but gained an enormous amount of wealth. He accomplished what most people dream of having, a life of luxury, but his only draw back is that he thought money can buy happiness. Tom Buchanan grew up with money and is a pretentious rich boy. He is living the American dream of wealth and fortune. It is his money that attracts women to his side, such as his wife Daisy and his mistress Myrtle. Tom can get almost anything he wants simply because he has money. Without it, I doubt his wife and mistress would stick around. Daisy Buchanan also grew up with money and her social status is important to her. Even though she loved Gatsby, she could not compromise her social status to marry a poor boy who suddenly became rich. She rather stays with a man who has wealth his entire life because ‘old money’ is considered a higher class than ‘new money’. Myrtle Wilson is a lady who loves to live a life of luxury, but she married a guy who cannot afford the lifestyle that she wants. She thought the man she married had money, but found out later he had to borrow a suit for their marriage. She became infatuated with Tom Buchanan simply because of his wealth and how he can offer her a chance to live the American dreams. She had mentioned to Catherine at a party with Tom â€Å"I married him because I thought he was a gentleman. I thought he knew something about breeding but he wasn’t fit t lick my shoes†, referring to her husband as being poor who doesn’t even deserve to lick her shoes (pg. 39, 8-10). This woman is all about the money. George Wilson and Nick Carraway, on the other hand, are different than the other characters. They are not as money crazy. George is a hard working man who runs a gas station and trying to provide for his family. Money doesn’t seem as important as long as he and his wife are happy. Carraway has a stable desk job and a decent place to live. To some people, that is the American dream. The American dream is about golden opportunities to make a large sum of money, but to some people money is just a form of survival. Others perceive the American dream as a lifestyle of freedom, freedom from a repressed society. The novel displays that social status is very important, which ultimately goes back to having money. To the characters in the novel, the American dream is that money is the most important factor to life, with a couple of exceptions who sees money as not important as the other characters make of it. Money is important, but the American dream is not necessarily about wealth all the time. There are other important factors to life other than acquiring a large amount of money. Making a large sum of money would solve many financial burdens, but it may not resolve the intangible problems, such as love and happiness. SECOND, as we mentioned earlier, the American dream is the chance to make a great deal of money, which is perceived to bring happiness; but wealth and happiness does not always go hand in hand, it can also lead to other problems, such as distress and loneliness. Having money can be a good thing, but it is also the root of most causes. We will examine the consequences of the American Dream on the characters in the novel; Jay Gatsby has wealth, but he wasn’t able to reach the happiness he desired. Daisy Buchanan was born wealthy, and in the end she chose money over love and happiness. Nick Carraway was not wealthy, but he was happy with his life. When there is money involved, it comes with many non financial problems. A consequence of the American dream on the character Gatsby was that he built a tremendous amount of wealth for himself in a short period of time, but his wealth indirectly killed him. It began with him trying to buy happiness with his fortune. As soon as Gatsby became rich, he started planning for his happiness, which is to rekindle his love with his former girlfriend, Daisy Buchanan. He utilized his wealth to throw fancy parties that cost a fortune only to gain social status and be accepted in high society, at the same time strategizing to get reacquainted with Daisy. When Gatsby saw Daisy for the first time since their adolescent years, he was already showing off his wealth and status to her hoping that his fortune would attract her back to his side. Wealth is only important to Gatsby because it gives him status in society, which he needs to get Daisy back. By buying his way into the upper class, he thought it would bring happiness to him simply because his status was comparable to Daisy. When Daisy chose his husband over Gatsby, suddenly Gatsby’s money became powerless because money could not buy him the love that he wanted. In the end, it was love that Gatsby was searching for and his wealth cost him his life. His expensive car was easily identified as the car that ran over Myrtle Wilson after Gatsby had a furious feud with Tom and Dasiy. When Myrtle (Tom Buchanan’s secret affair) saw the fancy car approaching the gas station owned by her husband George Wilson, and while assuming it was Tom’s car, she ran out to the streets thinking that it was Tom going to take her away. She was run over by the car and died. Gatsby was blamed for her death. Therefore, George wanted to avenge the death of his wife, so he shot Gatsby in the pool of his backyard. The point being is, Gatsby’s wealth indirectly killed him rather than giving him the happiness he was searching for. Another consequence of the American dream on the character Daisy was that she was born to wealth, and money seems to be her first priority, above love and happiness. She married Tom Buchanan, who also grew up with money. They shared a very similar background, both rich with upper class status. Daisy was in love with her ex-boyfriend Gatsby, but she was also attracted to Tom’s wealth and status in society. He bought her a very expensive jewelry when he proposed. To her, money and status were above the love she had for Gatsby. Gatsby grew up poor and Daisy could never bring herself to marry someone with a social status below her. She would compromise love for money and status, something in which her husband has an advantage over Gatsby. Tom was not a one lady man; he cheats on Daisy behind her back. Daisy was not completely innocent herself; she would secretively have meetings with Gatsby behind Tom’s back. Daisy was aware that Tom was having an affair, yet she could tolerate it. Daisy also knew that Gatsby would do anything for her, yet she was not satisfied because of his upbringing. In the end, she chose Tom over Gatsby simply because Gatsby was considered new money, while Tom was considered old money. â€Å"She vanished into her rich house, into her rich, full life, leaving Gatsby-nothing†. (pg. 156 28-30, pg. 157 1) She was a careless and uncaring person, in which money was the guidance of her life. She was selfish and doesn’t care about other people’s feelings, simply because she knew she had the wealth to back it up, so she could act however she pleases, like a spoiled brat. So, the American dream of Money once again proves that having a large sum of money is not necessarily a good thing, because having money doesn’t give you the power to hurt other people. A third consequence of the American dream on the character Carraway was that he valued money because he knew the true value of a dollar. Money was never handed to him, unlike the other characters, such as Tom and Daisy. He was brought up with the importance of hard earned money through examples oh his parents, and he is someone who practices the same ideals, yet he was fascinated with the lifestyle of Gatsby who spent money like it grows on trees. Carraway liked how Gatsby can make you feel like you are the center of attention. He is very observant of Gatsby, â€Å"On week-ends his Rolls-Royce became an omnibus bearing parties to and from the city†¦.. Every Friday, five crates of oranges and lemons arrive from fruiterer in New York†¦. † (pg. 43 8-19, pg. 44 1-12) He would love a lifestyle of the rich, but he realized he was content with his life. He knew what it was like to rise and fall back down. Therefore, he was not as money crazy. Carraway was not rich, but his lifestyle was certainly not too shabby. Although he was surrounded by wealth and money from relatives and friends, he seemed to have a solid head on his shoulders. He experienced and became a spectator of how wealth can be the root of all evil. He saw what had happened to Gatsby in search of his love by utilizing his wealth. He learned that money cannot buy love and many other things. He saw what money can do to a person and marriage, that was with selfishness and betrayals between his cousin Daisy and Tom. They both had affairs behind one another. Even though Carraway has wealthy friends, he doesn’t get too caught up in the getting rich scheme. He kept it simple, he dated, he had a decent career, and he had a decent place to live with an ocean view. His simple lifestyle seems far less complicated than the lifestyle of the wealthy people. Carraway learned that money is great, but money cannot buy love, happiness, and many other things. So, according to the American dream, money brings happiness, but one can be happy without the need to be extremely wealthy. Many people want to live the American dream of wealth and riches, but they don’t realize that it may not necessarily bring happiness into their lives; it could potentially turn out to be lonely. Gatsby, Daisy, and Tom had money, but they were not able to live the happiest life. Carraway, on the other hand, was not rich, but he was happy with his life. So, to say that living the American dream of wealth and money would bring happiness may not necessarily be true because happiness is a problem that money may not be able to solve. The novel of The Great Gatsby and the movie Citizen Kane share a common bond of what it is like to live the American dream. THIRD, Gatsby and Kane were a mere reflection of each other in several ways, in which they both lived the American dream, and finding out in the end that it is not as pleasant as originally thought; but the way they got their was quite different. Living the American dream of money and power were of importance to both Gatsby and Kane because it brought superiority, in which it was the access to everything in life, but also lead to unhappiness. They were both unsuccessful with their love lives because they neglected to think that money may not have been able to buy love and happiness. Gatsby and Kane were trapped in a place with the idealistic view that money could buy everything and disillusioned that money could buy the intangible things as well. Let us explore the comparison of Gatsby and Kane. Gatsby and Kane both viewed money and power as an important part of their lives because they could utilize the money and power for their own personal gain. They were both born to struggling parents, but were able to fulfill the American dream of wealth and luxury. The difference is that money was important to Gatsby because it upgraded his social status in society, which was the only way for him to get the attention of the love of his life; otherwise, money would not be important to him at all. As we mentioned earlier, money is the root of all causes, thus money caused Gatsby his life. He could have been able to live a full life if it wasn’t for money. On the other hand, money is important to Kane, but for a different reason. Kane was a pleasant young man, with great aspiration to run a successful newspaper business. He worked hard and aimed high to succeed in that industry. His urge of wanting money and power side tracked him for selfish reasons; hence the scene of which there were dancers and he was the center of attention with a feeling of superiority; this was the beginning of his greed. All of a sudden, he viewed money as the single most important goal: Here is a dialogue of Kane commanding his employees to follow his orders: Charles: Now look, Mr. Carter, heres a front-page story in the Chronicle about a Mrs. Harry Silverstone in Brooklyn whos missing. Now, shes probably murdered. Heres a picture of her in the Chronicle. Why isnt there something about it in the Inquirer? Carter: Cause were running a newspaper. Carter: Theres no proof that that woman is murdered, or even that shes dead Its not our function to report the gossip of housewives. If we were interested in that kind of thing, Mr. Kane, we could fill the paper twice over daily. Charles: Mr. Carter, thats the kind of thing we are going to be interested in, from now on. (Citizen Kane) This sounds like a decent man turned into a tyrant because of money. Even though money did not cost Kane his life, there was nothing meaningful about it. He had no true friends and family to spend his life with because of his greed with money and power. Gatsby and Kane, although rich and powerful in the American way, were unsuccessful with love and happiness. Gatsby was unsuccessful with love because he did not achieve what he set forth to accomplish, which was to be with the love of his life, Daisy. Gatsby did everything in his power to be with Daisy. He treated her with the utmost respect, putting her as the number one priority in his decision making. He catered to her every whim. In the novel, Gatsby fired all his servants: â€Å"My Finn informed me that Gatsby had dismissed every servant in his house†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (pg. 120, 20; pg. 121, 1-2) Gatsby fired all his servants for the sake of Daisy because he feared that people would see her leaving his house and would give her trouble. Despite his gentlemanly efforts, Daisy chose another man in the end. On the other hand, Kane was also unsuccessful with love because the two marriages he was involved in fell apart. He cheated on his first wife, and drove his second wife away. He was too self-centered, wanting everything his way or no way. In a relationship there should be compromises, but Kane offered nothing remotely close to a compromise. His actions signified that if you have money, your words were final; thus, the words from Kane himself, â€Å"People will think what I tell them to think†. (Citizen Kane) He assumed that by having money and power, love was inevitable; but he was very wrong. Money cannot buy friendship, romance and happiness. Kane’s last word before his death was â€Å"Rosebud†. (Citizens Kane) Not a single person could explain the meaning of this word, even those who thought they knew Kane well. This indicated that he had no family and true friends that eventually lead Kane to a lonely death. Gatsby and Kane were both trapped in a world of idealism and disillusionment. They were idealistic about money and power, in which it would provide for everything in this world; but they were disillusioned that money can buy the intangible things as well, such as love and happiness. Gatsby was very idealistic about money and power, that he could have anything he wanted if he had a tremendous amount of wealth, and a tremendous amount of wealth he had indeed. He was disillusioned that money could buy the love of Daisy and the happiness of his life, thus the intangibles. Gatsby said to Nick, â€Å"I’m going to fix everything just the way it was before,†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ She’ll see†. (pg. 117, 3-4) He thought that his money could fix all his problems, but he thought wrong. Daisy chose her husband over Gatsby. In the end of the novel, we found out that money could not buy just anything, certainly not love and happiness. Kane was idealistic about money and power because of the notion that it would provide for everything in this world. He was disillusioned that money would empower him to do as he pleased, and with that, happiness would follow. He was disillusioned that money could buy the intangibles of friendship, love and happiness. It could have started when he was taken away from his parents at a very young age because his mother thought Kane would live a better life if he had money. This could have had a negative repercussion on Kane when his parents were willing to give him up; and because of his parents giving him up for money, he could have grown up with the idea that money as being the most important factor. Gatsby and Kane lived the American dream, but it was the dream of money that led to the conclusion of their lives. Gatsby and Kane both lived the American dream of wealth and luxury, but it was money that defeated them in the end; Gatsby lost his life, while Kane lived a lonely life. Even though romance existed in their lives, neither one of them were successful in maintaining a loving and lasting relationship. They were both idealistic about money and its value, but disillusionment that money could buy everything, which includes love and happiness. The American dream comes with many other unforeseen problems, as Citizen Kane is anther example of the complications of the American dream. In summary, the American dream provides hope for people who are ambitious. To have money would relieve many financial burdens, but it may not necessarily bring the happiness you are searching for, as we saw with the characters in the novel. The characters in the novel had a great deal of money, but in the end were something less than happiness. Another example is Citizen Kane, in which money may not necessarily bring happiness. In conclusion, the novel portrays that money is the root of most causes, because it is the focal point of the American dream; Citizen Kane is another example of this cause.